Three decades of war and civil unrest have wreaked havoc on both Afghanistan‟s environment and the lives of its people. Since over 80 percent of the population live in rural areas and depend economically on the country‟s natural resource base, effective management of these resources is absolutely critical. The most urgent threats to the Afghan environment include over-hunting, deforestation, dry land farming, water diversion, over-grazing, land encroachment, and climate change, and an ever-growing population that puts additional pressure on essential natural resources. After decades of conflict that destroyed both government institutions and local management structures and left an entire generation of Afghans without appropriate education or experience, there is little to no technical capacity to implement sustainable resource management at either the community or government level.This situation threatens to undermine the entire reconstruction effort in Afghanistan – if people cannot feed and shelter themselves or their families, efforts at improving governance, infrastructure, and overall security will have little chance of long-term success. The Natural Resource Management and Agriculture Program is aim to build capacities at the community level to conserve and sustainably manage its natural resources and improve the livelihoods of the rural communities in Afghanistan. The program includes capacity building of the community-based organizations effective participation in the irrigation and watershed management, delver services and governance at the community level, water shade management and agriculture value chain management.The program also improved governance by strengthening linkages between local communities and regional and national government bodies.